美国调查员显然使用了从银行获得的信息，已经解决了对他们的指控以及对其他机构提出的新的指控。他们现在主要注意包括俄罗斯银行和德意志银行(Deutsche Bank AG)的几个机构。
基于监管机构的罚款，银行同样面临着客户的阶层的法律诉讼，包括机构投资者和对冲基金，涉及到外汇掉期交易，期货期权和现货交易。上个月初，Barclays PLC， Goldman Sachs Group Inc.，BNP Paribas SA，HSBC Holdings PLC 和 the Royal Bank of Scotland PLC几家公司已经在法庭上同意了“实质性合作”，进行了超过两十亿的结算。
FX Manipulation Investigation Now Extends to ARS, RUB and BRL Rates
American authorities have also reportedly started focusing on banks that have not already settled in or out of court, such as Deutsche Bank.
Some of the world’s major FX trading banks already paid billions of dollars over the past year in fines or settlements, but the market rigging investigation continues to expand. The U.S. Justice Department now check if the Argentine peso, Russian ruble and Brazilian real rates were tempered by institutional traders.
American investigators are apparently using information obtained from the banks that have already settled their charges to come up with the new allegations against other institutions. They are now focusing on a small number of institutions including several Russian banks and Deutsche Bank AG.
The global FX manipulation scandal is the result of investigations by financial watchdogs and regulators from around the world, that focused on chat groups in which institutional dealers sent instant messages over their Bloomberg terminals. For a period of three years, in chat groups with names such as ”The Cartel” and “The Bandits’ Club,” bank traders shared information with competitors allowing them to execute their own trades before filling client orders.
The revelations of the rates manipulation had serious negative effects on the brands of the major international banks as traders were exposed, clients had their confidence shaken and investors worried about the overall impact of the fines crossing over $10 billion.
Beyond the regulatory fines, the banks are also faced with class actions lawsuits by their clients, including institutional investors and hedge funds, that have engaged in FX swaps, futures, options and spot transactions. Earlier this month, Barclays PLC, Goldman Sachs Group Inc., BNP Paribas SA, HSBC Holdings PLC and the Royal Bank of Scotland PLC have agreed on “substantial cooperation” in court, bringing the total settlements paid to over $2 billion.
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